The life and military genius of the black napoleon toussaint louverture

He gradually established control over the whole island and used political and military tactics to gain dominance over his rivals. Throughout his years in power, he worked to improve the economy and security of Saint Domingue.

The life and military genius of the black napoleon toussaint louverture

Supposedly his favorite subjects were the military campaigns of Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great. After helping his master escape the slaughter, Toussaint entered the turbulent events of strife-torn Hispaniola, first by making a military reputation for himself. With black soldiers—former slaves—Toussaint crossed over to the eastern, and Spanish, part of Hispaniola, where he served with distinction in the Spanish colonial army, taking part in its campaigns against the French.

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During this time, his forces, organized and officered by French regulars who had deserted, steadily grew to a disciplined force of 4, men. By mid Toussaint was ready for a crucial move. The British, ever ready to harass France, had tried to take advantage of the confusion in Saint-Domingue western Hispaniola by sending troops to put down the slave revolt.

Furthermore, they were concerned that the desire for freedom might spread to their nearby colony of Jamaica. Toussaint defeated the British forces, freed the imprisoned French governor general, and with the help of Gen.

Rigaud, an outstanding Haitian mulatto general, drove the English from Saint-Domingue. Height of Power By Toussaint was the dominant figure in the colony. Hero to his victorious soldiers and to all former slaves, he was respected as well by the resident French authorities.

Toussaint now showed that his political instincts were on a par with his military abilities. Even at this date was evident the black-mulatto rift which is one of the chief characteristics of Haitian history. Though the mulattoes, led by Gen. Rigaud, had cooperated with the blacks against the British, many of the mulattoes really wished to reimpose slavery.

Before they had been free and in many cases were substantial slaveholders in their own right.

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Their desire was to participate with the French in governing Saint-Domingue. In a series of deft military campaigns and political moves, Toussaint completed the task of eliminating his opposition.

First, Rigaud and the mulattoes were defeated. Toussaint then arranged for his nominal French superiors to be sent to Paris as colonial representatives to the French Assembly. Early in his army captured Santo Domingo, capital of the Spanish part of Hispaniola.

Toussaint also turned his energies to rebuilding the plantation economy, shattered as it was by a decade of strife.

The life and military genius of the black napoleon toussaint louverture

Ironically, forced labor was the only way. Many former planters returned as contract administrators, and by the colony again knew a brief period of prosperity. The "First of the Blacks" was about to meet in Napoleon his equal in cunning and ambition.

Toussaint had used his friendship with the United States to loosen dependence on France and to negotiate with England. Louisiana was again passing from Spanish to French control, and a secure base in Saint-Domingue was the key to success. In earlyNapoleon sent an army under Gen.

Leclerc, his brother-in-law, to subdue Toussaint, deport him and his principal collaborators to France, and return the colony to slavery.

Other articles where History of France is discussed: France: History: Gaul, in this context, signifies only what the Romans, from their perspective, termed Transalpine Gaul (Gallia Transalpina, or “Gaul Across the Alps”). Broadly, it comprised all lands from the Pyrenees and the. François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture, also Toussaint L’Ouverture, Toussaint-Louverture, Toussaint Bréda, or sometimes erroneously Toussaint L”Ouverture, nicknamed The Black Napoleon (20 May – 7 April ), was the leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military genius and. Napoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoa, a former commune of Italy, transferred Corsica to France. The state sold sovereign rights a year before his birth in , and the island was conquered by France during the year of his birth and formally incorporated as a province in , after years under nominal Genoese rule and 14 years of independence.

Napoleon wrote to Toussaint, flattering him, asking him to assist Leclerc with his counsels, influence, and talents. The Republic had given us liberty. The Republic will not suffer it to be taken from us.

The life and military genius of the black napoleon toussaint louverture

He had hoped to be received without hostilities, but his desires were thwarted as Gen. Thus began the true Haitian War of Independence.

But the coastal centers soon fell to the French, often with the complicity of their garrison commanders. A notable exception was Gen. His strong support allowed Toussaint to retire inland with the bulk of his army intact. In the north Christophe had surrendered to the French. By May Toussaint and Dessalines had also capitulated.

The end for Toussaint was fast approaching. In Haiti the revolt continued, and the following year Haiti proclaimed its independence. An excellent source of information on Haiti is James G. Leyburn, The Haitian People ; rev.

Other useful works include C. The Black Republic ; rev.Haitian Revolution; Part of the Atlantic Revolutions, French Revolutionary Wars, and Napoleonic Wars.: Battle at San Domingo, a painting by January Suchodolski, depicting a struggle between Polish troops in French service and the slave rebels and freed revolutionary soldiers.

Napoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoa, a former commune of Italy, transferred Corsica to France.

Toussaint Louverture - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core

The state sold sovereign rights a year before his birth in , and the island was conquered by France during the year of his birth and formally incorporated as a province in , after years under nominal Genoese rule and 14 years of independence.

Other articles where History of France is discussed: France: History: Gaul, in this context, signifies only what the Romans, from their perspective, termed Transalpine Gaul (Gallia Transalpina, or “Gaul Across the Alps”).

Broadly, it comprised all lands from the Pyrenees and the. François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture, also Toussaint L’Ouverture, Toussaint-Louverture, Toussaint Bréda, or sometimes erroneously Toussaint L”Ouverture, nicknamed The Black Napoleon (20 May – 7 April ), was the leader of the Haitian Revolution.

His military genius and. Toussaint Louverture, the “black Napoleon” who in led fellow-slaves in Haiti to the threshold of independence, also loved a remote, unseen “fatherland,” according to Philippe Girard.

Maroon community: Maroon community, a group of formerly enslaved Africans and their descendants who gained their freedom by fleeing chattel enslavement and running to the safety and cover of the remote mountains or the dense overgrown tropical terrains near .

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