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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Physical activity PA plays an important role in the prevention and management of a number of chronic conditions. Method A comprehensive systematic review was performed using 11 electronic databases up to 20 February Randomized controlled trials, published in English, that examined the effects of a pedometer-based walking intervention to increase physical activity levels and improve physical function and pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders were included.
Across these studies, there was a mean increase in PA of steps per day relative to baseline. Conclusion This study provides strong evidence for the effectiveness of pedometer walking interventions in increasing PA levels for patients with MSDs.
Our findings suggest that a combination of interventions is likely to be the most effective strategy to maximize health benefits in the short term.
Further research should include larger sample sizes, and longer intervention durations are required to support the role of pedometer walking interventions as a long term intervention for management of musculoskeletal disorders.
Motion sensors, Physical activity, Motivation tools, Pedometer, Chronic disease, Step counter Background The worldwide prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders MSDs is reflected in increasing costs, [ Study of effectiveness of pedometer - 3 ] occupational injury, and long term disability [ 1245 ].
In particular, musculoskeletal pain constitutes an increasing problem in the ageing population [ 6 ] and is an important factor underpinning functional limitations [ 7 - 9 ]. Consequently, musculoskeletal disorders have a large impact on activities at work and home, [ 78 ] and place a considerable burden on the health care system [ 4 ].
Physical activity PA plays an important role in the prevention and management of a number of chronic conditions, [ 10 - 12 ] such as cardiovascular disease, [ 13 - 15 ] diabetes mellitus, [ 16 ] and obesity, [ 17 ] and has been shown to reduce premature mortality and improve quality of life [ 10 ] in the general population [ 1018 ].
In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated the benefits of promoting an increase in PA to reduce pain and improve quality of life in the adult population with MSDs, [ 19 - 21 ] to reduce musculoskeletal impairment in the elderly, [ 20 ] and reduce pain for those with low back pain LBP [ 22 ], neck pain, and shoulder pain [ 23 ].
Physical activity has also been shown to play a role in protecting against later hip fracture in an adult population [ 24 ] and reducing the incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in an elderly population [ 25 ].
Results from a systematic review also support the effectiveness of PA to treat and prevent a number of chronic disorders [ 26 ]. There are numerous modalities available for the management of MSDs, and considerable debate about the most effective interventions; [ 9 ] however, increasing PA as part of the overall management approach is a key feature of a range of studies investigating the management of MSDs [ 927 ].
Walking is deemed to be one of the most effective forms of PA, with little risk of injury among low-activity populations; [ 28 - 30 ] it has been used successfully as an intervention to reduce the burden of a number of chronic diseases including hypertension, [ 31 ] cardiovascular risk, [ 32 ] obesity, [ 33 ] and osteoarthritis OA [ 34 ].
Currently, there are a number of studies that support the use of walking-based interventions to encourage people with a range of MSDs [ 2234 ] to assume a physically more active role in their management.
Pedometers have been commonly employed to provide a measurement of walking undertaken as part of a PA program, to provide patient feedback, and as a motivational instrument within intervention programs designed to increase activity and improve the quality of life, across a range of clinical conditions including: In addition, a number of studies describe a variety of pedometer-driven walking research protocols for adults with low back pain [ 4243 ] designed to assess the effects on pain-related disability and functional interference.
A systematic review on the effect of aerobic walking or strengthening exercises for OA of knee found walking to be effective in decreasing pain and improving function in this population [ 34 ].
Hendrick and colleagues similarly presented moderate evidence for walking interventions playing a role in decreasing pain levels in patients with acute and chronic LBP CLBP [ 22 ]. However, there is little standardization between protocols as to the most effective pedometer-driven walking programs for MSDs, and therefore it is difficult to evaluate the relative effectiveness of one program over another within this population.
As there has been no systematic review focusing on the effectiveness of pedometer-driven walking programs as part of the management of adults with MSDs, the primary purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the evidence for pedometer-driven walking programs as an intervention in promoting PA and improving health-related outcomes when compared to no intervention, or a different type of intervention, among adults with MSDs.
Methods Search strategy A systematic search of the literature was carried out using the following electronic databases: All databases were searched from their inception to 20 February Keywords and MeSH terms used in the search strategy were: In addition, the reference lists of all included articles were also searched for further relevant studies that may not have been identified by the search strategy described above.
Firstly, the first reviewer Suliman Mansi SM title-screened all articles for potential inclusion. The abstracts of those studies were then independently reviewed by two reviewers SM and Paul Hendrick, PH and consensus sought for acceptance for review of the full-text article.
In the final step, the references of all full-text articles were searched for additional articles. Inclusion and exclusion criteria Studies were included if they met the following criteria: Studies that investigated measurement-validity or reliability- tests of a pedometer walking program were excluded.
Extraction of data Data extraction for all included studies was performed by the first author SM and cross-checked for consensus by a second author PH.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based, tailored, pedometer-based PA intervention in adults.
The results revealed that the combination of the pedometer, the information booklet, and the computer-tailored step advice has the potential to enhance objectively measured daily step counts in both the total sample .
In this cost-effectiveness study, the pedometer intervention was applied through a community program, targeted at everyone aged 15 and over. Cobiac et al. assumed that % of the target population would start using a pedometer.
” Studies have shown that wearing a pedometer is a simple, effective way for people to become more aware of their daily activity level, and increase their physical activity (Rooney, ).
Dena et al () stated that, the use of a pedometer is associated with significant increases in physical activity and significant decreases in body mass index and blood pressure. Pedometer users increased their physicial activity by more than 2, steps per day, or more than 1 mile of walking, according to a review by Dena Bravata of studies done on the effectiveness of pedometers.
This study seeks to find out whether teacher effectiveness influences students academic performance. It is not, however, very easy, to investigate the area of effectiveness in teaching, because many hold the view that the concept has no measurable indices.
Jul 10, · Future research should explore the long-term effectiveness of pedometers in increasing PA levels in these populations. The majority of the studies included in our review included short term follow up, highlighting the necessity of longer term studies.