THIS essay examines the idea of tolerance in our advanced industrial society. The conclusion reached is that the realization of the objective of tolerance would call for intolerance toward prevailing policies, attitudes, opinions, and the extension of tolerance to policies, attitudes, and opinions which are outlawed or suppressed. In other words, today tolerance appears again as what it was in its origins, at the beginning of the modern period--a partisan goal, a subversive liberating notion and practice. Conversely, what is proclaimed and practiced as tolerance today, is in many of its most effective manifestations serving the cause of oppression.
Posted on April 8, by Scott Alexander I. I have a huge bias against growth mindset. More on Wikipedia here. Social psychology Poverty in relation to welfare essay been, um, very enthusiastic about denying that result. If all growth mindset did was continue to deny it, then it would be unexceptional.
But growth mindset goes further. People who believe that anyone can succeed if they try hard enough will be successful, well-adjusted, and treat life as a series of challenging adventures. It is right smack in the middle of a bunch of fields that have all started seeming a little dubious recently.
Most of the growth mindset experiments have used priming to get people in an effort-focused or an ability-focused state of mind, but recent priming experiments have famously failed to replicate and cast doubt on the entire field.
And growth mindset has an obvious relationship to stereotype threat, which has also started seeming very shaky recently.
So I have every reason to be both suspicious of and negatively disposed toward growth mindset. Which makes it appalling that the studies are so damn good. Consider Dweck and Muellerone of the key studies in the area.
First they did some easy ones and universally succeeded. The researchers praised them as follows: All children were told that they had performed well on this problem set: You got [number of problems] right.
Some children were praised for their ability after the initial positive feedback: This is a nothing intervention, the tiniest ghost of an intervention.
The experiment had previously involved all sorts of complicated directions and tasks, I get the impression they were in the lab for at least a half hour, and the experimental intervention is changing three short words in the middle of a sentence.
Children in the intelligence condition were much less likely to persevere on a difficult task than children in the effort condition 3. This was repeated in a bunch of subsequent studies by the same team among white students, black students, Hispanic students…you probably still get the picture.
Then she gave all of them impossible problems and watched them squirm — or, more formally, tested how long the two groups continued working on them effectively.
She found extremely strong results — of the 30 subjects in each group, 11 of the mastery-oriented tried harder after failure, compared to 0 helpless.
This study is really weird. Either something is really wrong here, or this one little test that separates mastery-oriented from helpless children constantly produces the strongest effects in all of psychology and is never wrong.
None of them ever expressed a positive statement about their own progress, while over two-thirds of the children who thought effort was more important did.
And a meta-analysis of all growth mindset studies finds more modest, but still consistent, effects, and only a little bit of publication bias.
So — is growth mindset the one concept in psychology which throws up gigantic effect sizes and always works? Or did Carol Dweck really, honest-to-goodness, make a pact with the Devil in which she offered her eternal soul in exchange for spectacular study results?
But here are a few things that predispose me towards the latter explanation.
A warning — I am way out of my league here and post this only hoping it will spark further discussion. The first thing that bothers me is the history. It seems to have grown out of a couple of studies Carol Dweck and a few collaborators did in the seventies. But these studies generally found that a belief in innate ability was a positive factor alongside belief in growth mindset, with the problem children being the ones who attributed their success or failure to bad luck, or to external factors like the tests being rigged which, by the way, they always were.While your essay if well written and well argued, I failed to see any alternative offered to replace or at least to begin replacing/changing our current capitalist system.
- This essay will consider whether the welfare state has eliminated poverty. It will examine what poverty is and how the definition varies from societies. The essay will look at the aims of the welfare state from conception and how it has changed to present times.
1. Harold Wilensky put it baldly and succinctly: "Economic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development." Harold Wilensky, The Welfare State and Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, ), p.
2. Thus, Flora and Alber find no correlation between levels of industrialization and social insurance programs of 12 European nations between the s and the s.
That seems different, though, because it requires rejecting one ideology/ingroup, namely Catholicism. It makes sense that people identifying as Catholic would resent that the Protestants found a way to weaken Catholicism, and apparently people who “took the soup” were ostracized.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Public health, the new ideology may be taken to mean the promotion of healthy lifestyles linked to behaviour and individual responsibility supported by government action; whereas traditionally the description tended to relate more to sanitary reform and ‘healthy conditions’.
The serfdom in Tibet controversy rests on Chinese claims of moral authority for governing Tibet, portraying Tibet as a "feudal serfdom" and a "hell on earth" prior to its invasion in Claims of unfree labour practices have been a recurrent theme, covering periods both before and after the Chinese takeover.
Supporters of the Chinese position highlight statements by the government of the.