History of genetics The observation that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. His second law is the same as what Mendel published. In his third law, he developed the basic principles of mutation he can be considered a forerunner of Hugo de Vries.
Simple Mendelian Genetics in Drosophila Lab objectives: The common fruit fly is a model organism for genetic studies.
The reason it is so widely used is because it is easily cultured in the lab, has a short generation time, and can produce many offspring.
Before you begin the lab today, you should learn a little about the life cycle of fruit flies. The life cycle from egg to adult takes about Mendelian genetics of drosophila days at room temperature.
Eggs are laid and hatch into first instar larvae. These larvae feed voraciously on the culture medium provided. You can observe this by looking at a culture bottle - you should see many tunnels in the medium made by small white larvae or maggots.
These first instar larvae go through several instar stages and eventually the third instar larvae crawl up the sides of the bottle away from the culture medium.
There they stop and their larval cuticle hardens forming a dark brown pupa. Metamorphosis takes place during the pupal stage. Larvae tissues degenerate and reorganize forming an adult fly inside the pupal case. When metamorphosis is complete, the adult fly emerges from the pupal case.
After the fly emerges, the wings expand and dry, the abdomen becomes more rotund, and the color of the body darkens. Male and female fruit flies can be distinguished from each other in three ways: The first task of the lab is to become proficient at sexing the flies.
Practice sexing several flies and check out your diagnosis with your instructor.
In fruit fly genetics, the normal fly is called a "wild type" and any fly exhibiting a phenotypic mutation is called a "mutant". Mutant flies are given names that generally denote the type of mutation the fly exhibits.
For example, the mutant "ebony" has a much darker body than the wild type fly. Each mutation is also given a letter code. Thus, in the case of ebony, the code is a lower case e. The above description is for a gene located on an autosome a non-sex chromosome.
Of course, fruit flies also have sex chromosomes and they contain a subset of genes as well. If the gene is located on a sex chromosome, we use a slightly different notation.
Under normal diploid conditions a female fruit fly has two X chromosomes, a male has an X and a Y chromosome. Sex-linked genes are located on one of the sex chromosomes usually the X chromosome.
Thus, the genotypic notation for a mutant gene for white eye color on the X chromosome would look like: To get use to the idea of phenotypic mutations, you will be given several strains of mutant flies.
In your lab notebook, describe their morphology paying particular attention to eye color, body color, and wing shape. You should begin with a wild type fly so that you will have some basis for comparison.
You may want to draw a picture.Published: Wed, 06 Jun Joshua Park; Introduction. Drosophila melanogaster, known generally as a fruit fly, is a cost-effective model organism with certain qualities that make it an ideal research tool in various fields of barnweddingvt.comhila melanogaster are preferred over vertebrate models as a research tool in genetic studies due to its basic food requirements, its ability to produce.
Mendelian and classical genetics. Morgan's observation of sex-linked inheritance of a mutation causing white eyes in Drosophila led him to the hypothesis that genes are located upon chromosomes. (Drosophila melanogaster) is a popular model organism in genetics research.
MENDELIAN INHERITANCE IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER The following investigation will be used to demonstrate two basic principles of Mendelian inheritance using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster – the principle of segregation and the principle of ind ependent assortment.
Drosophila melanogaster is used in this lab as well as many other wet-lab experiments, particularly genetic experiments, because it meets all the criteria in order to be a model organism. Simple Mendelian Genetics in Drosophila. Lab objectives.
1) To familiarize you with an important research organism, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. 2) Introduce you to normal "wild type" and various mutant phenotypes. Genetics of. Drosophila Lab Report Victor Martin April 14, Fourth Block AP Biology INTRODUCTION Genetics is a topic that has been studied for hundreds of years.5/5(4).