The Moral Status of the Foetus:
References and Further Reading 1.
The Sophists The first standard of legal validity in the Western legal tradition appears in Hesiod's religious poem Works and Days, circa B. Hesiod presents an archetypal jurisprudence that integrates law's three dimensions. Justice "sets the laws straight with righteousness" and distinguishes men from beasts.
Divinely decreed moral principles establish the validity standard for human law and customs, and conforming laws and customs establish the nomoi law. Just men obey the nomoi, and obedience brings peace and prosperity.
Disobedience brings punishment to the individual and his city through famine, plague, infertility, and military disaster.
The Sophistswandering teachers of the fifth century B.
They rejected Hesiod's moral dimension by rejecting the existence of divine lawgivers and universal moral principles. They rejected Hesiod's historical dimension by denying any normative authority to custom.
Might was right, and law functioned only in the political dimension as the will of the strongest.
The Sophist Protagoras of Abdera b. As an agnostic, Protagoras rejected the divine lawgiver. As a moral relativist, Protagoras rejected the existence of universal moral principles. Unlike later Sophists, however, Protagoras accepted the validity of custom in law's historical dimension.
Protagoras based his moral relativism on the argument that a shared factual knowledge of the world is impossible.
The foundation of Protagoras' relativism is the "man-measure" of the Aletheia Truth. The data of sense perception, however, are private, subjective states. The wind is truly warm to the man who perceives it as warm, but the same wind is truly cold to the man who perceives it as cold.
Perceived objects therefore have contradictory properties and there are no public facts. Protagoras maintained that all knowledge claims are thus equally true.
Furthermore, their truth endures regardless of conflicting claims. Protagoras therefore claimed "it is equally possible to affirm and deny anything of anything.
Protagoras extended his doctrine that all knowledge claims are equally true to claim that all virtue claims are equally true.
Virtue claims are relative to the claimant because virtue is only another form of knowledge.Death, divorce, marriage, retirement, career changes, empty-nesting, moving Whether we instigate a stressful event or feel like the victim of one, navigating the transitional waters of change is hard.
In , Paul Graham wrote How To Disagree Better, ranking arguments on a scale from name-calling to explicitly refuting the other person’s central point..
And that’s why, ever since , Internet arguments have generally been civil and productive. Graham’s hierarchy is useful for its intended purpose, but it isn’t really a hierarchy of disagreements. Free argumentative essay on why kids should get vaccines papers, essays, and research papers.
Life or death Euthanasia arguments for and against. Euthanasia is the termination of an extremely ill person’s life in order to relieve them from the suffering the illness is causing.
Euthanasia is usually only conducted on a person with an incurable condition, however there are other instances when euthanasia can be carried out. The Moral Status of the Foetus: Philosophical Investigations into the Abortion issue The Nature of the Problem. Click here for the current state of UK law on abortion.
An embryo is defined as biological human life from 14 days to eight weeks. I felt like a burden. Then I discovered John Stuart Mill and Milton Friedman and they said “People deserve to determine the course of their own lives” and “you own yourself” and stuff like that and I started entertaining the idea that I deserved to live, by virtue of being human.