Action T4 personnel and T4-Gutachter After the official end of the euthanasia programme inmost of the personnel and high-ranking officials, as well as gassing technology and the techniques used to deceive victims, were transferred under the jurisdiction of the national medical division of the Reich Interior Ministry. Further gassing experiments with the use of mobile gas chambers Einsatzwagen were conducted at Soldau concentration camp by Herbert Lange following Operation Barbarossa.
Author Note An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional.
A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories e. Being dimension-like requires a within-category heterogeneity and b between-category quantitative differences.
Being category-like requires a within-category homogeneity and b between-category qualitative differences. The relation between this classification and abrupt versus smooth differences is discussed.
Hybrid structures are possible. Being category-like is itself a matter of degree; we offer a formalized framework to determine this degree. Empirical applications to personality disorders, attitudes toward capital punishment, and stages of cognitive development illustrate the approach.
This article describes a conceptual and psychometric scheme for distinguishing the categorical versus dimensional nature of psychological variables. By "psychological variables" we mean variables used to distinguish between entities in some psychological respect.
These entities are commonly persons, but they can be also situations, tasks, test items, and so on. The scheme arose out of frustrations with instances of psychological research that had either assumed or "proved" that variables were of one kind or the other without examining the philosophical or empirical basis for doing so and without an overarching framework in which either was genuinely possible.
A preliminary distinction in determining whether variables are category-like or dimension-like is the distinction between manifest variables and latent variables. Too often these two kinds of variables are confused, which can lead to inappropriate conclusions.
Specifically, researchers may confuse manifest categories or dimensions, which are artifacts of the measurement approach, with latent categories or dimensions, which are typically the underlying psychological phenomena of interest.
The issue under consideration here is whether the latent nature of manifest variables is category-like or dimension-like. One assumption might be that the nature of the latent and manifest variables match.
As discussed below, however, manifest dimensions can be turned into manifest categories e. Thus, the relations between different kinds of manifest variables and between different kinds of manifest and latent variables are not so simple as they might at first appear. Consequently, a conceptual and methodological framework that encompasses all of these possibilities is needed.
Manifest dimensions or manifest continua are common in psychological research, although their dimensional nature may be only a convenient fiction. For example, raw scores on a test e. Items on a test are examples of indicators in the same way that symptoms in a diagnostic system are indicators, although these different kinds of indicators are typically put to very different uses.
Whereas items are typically summed to produce a manifest dimension, symptoms are typically summed to produce a manifest category a diagnosis. To complicate matters, a manifest dimension based on item sums may also be segmented e. It should be apparent from this discussion that manifest categories and manifest dimensions can be functionally interchangeable and thus arbitrary.
Latent dimensions are quantitative variables with values that depend on the person and that in one way or another contribute to the observations, either directly or indirectly via the effect the quantitative variable has on the probability of the responses.
For a discussion of the epistemological status of latent variables, see Borsboom, Mellenbergh, and van Heerden Latent dimensions are invoked as underlying quantities that determine data or functions thereof such as the sum score.
For example, in classical test theory, a true score latent dimension is believed to be at the basis of the sum score of a test manifest dimensionexcept for distortions due to the so-called error term. Latent dimensions are implicit whenever concepts like internal-consistency reliability are used--that is, in virtually all tests of psychological phenomena.
The underlying variables in factor analysis models, structural equation modeling SEMand item response theory IRT are not manifest but latent dimensions.
Manifest categories are also common in psychological research, as independent or dependent variables. Regardless of whether the categorical variables are independent or dependent variables, they are often but not always rooted in, derived from, based on, or linked to some manifest or tacit indicators from the same domain.Mental illness, stigma, and substance abuse are major forms of deviance studied by sociologists, although deviance comprises many different forms of behavior.
Sociological explainations of mental illness focus on the social context in which mental illness develops and is treated. Social Deviance and Social Norms - Social deviance is a violation of social norms. So what qualifies as a social deviant. According to sociologist, Howard S.
Becker the best definition of social deviance is, “It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that do something deviant.”.
Psychopathy is traditionally a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.
It is sometimes considered synonymous with barnweddingvt.coment conceptions of psychopathy have been used throughout history that are only partly overlapping and may sometimes be contradictory. Aktion T4 (German, pronounced [akˈtsi̯oːn teː fiːɐ]) was a postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany.
The name T4 is an abbreviation of Tiergartenstraße 4, a street address of the Chancellery department set up in the spring of , in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, which recruited and paid personnel associated with T4.
Theories of Crime and Deviance. Crime: The study of social deviance is the study of the violation of cultural norms in either formal or informal contexts. Social deviance is a phenomenon that has existed in all societies where there have been norms.
constructive role in society by ultimately helping to cohere different populations. The author addresses some of the many comments regarding his struggle with homosexuality. My previous article describing my path out of homosexuality generated much comment. Many posters asked valid questions not answered by the first article, which told a personal story: How common is this.