In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells. Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito.
However, like many other countries, Ghana did not have a nationally representative survey on blindness and visual impairment. The aim of this study was to provide robust national representative data on blindness and visual impairment in Ghana.
The main objectives were to estimate the prevalence of moderate visual impairment, severe visual impairment and blindness in the general population by age, sex and zone of residence, as well as to quantify the causes of avoidable blindness.
The survey was conducted between February and November in accordance with the codes of conduct of the Declaration of Helsinki.
Informed written, thumb-printed consent was obtained from all participants in the presence of witnesses. Sample Design The sample design was a two-staged, stratified cluster sample design.
The cluster was the Enumeration Area EA. A sample of 77 EAs was selected using a systematic method, with probability proportional to size the number of households in each EA at 95 percent significance level at the first stage.
The sampling units were stratified at the first stage into the two zones: Intervention zones are places where blindness prevention programmes have been implemented. Within each zone the sampling units were further stratified into urban and rural areas. In all, a total of 1, households were selected from intervention zones and from non-intervention zones and 1, households were successfully interviewed, representing a The 1, completed household interviews resulted in a total of 4, individuals eligible for clinical examination, of which 4, were successfully clinically examined by the survey team.
Research team in the field — Both eyes of each member of the selected households were examined by clinical teams.
Clinical Examination Both eyes of each member of the selected households were examined by three clinical teams, each led by an ophthalmologist.
Clinical teams included an optometrist and ophthalmic nurses, who were assisted by an enumeration team which conducted face-to-face interviews using the household questionnaire.
Detailed standard operating procedures were developed for the eye examinations and clinical staff were obliged to follow them.
Visual acuity measurement was conducted by starting from the adult members of the household and working down to the youngest members. The eye examination included anterior and posterior segment evaluations.
This was to assess the vertical disc ratio and intraocular pressure to determine the cause of blindness and low vision. Data Management and Statistical Analysis All study-related forms at the enumeration level were received at the central coordination office, manually checked for completeness and keyed into a database using CSPro statistical software.
Data from the participant interviews, eye examinations and household surveys was linked and incorporated in each data entry template.Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for causes of death, – a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Hi Lexi, Thanks for your question!
Malaria certainly is a serious disease which messes up your body while you are infected with the parasite.
Problems can include complications with the liver, spleen and kidneys, particularly if you have a serious case of P. falciparum malaria. A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of barnweddingvt.com substantially affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime.
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