This model works very naturally in a short space such as a research proposal or article but can be harder to realize on the bigger canvas of a thesis introduction. Many thesis writers struggle with the need to provide adequate contextualizing detail before being able to give a satisfying account of their problem.
So S implicated that it is not the case that only some athletes smoke. This is the very opposite of the implicature Levinson claimed to derive.
A Levinsonian explanation in terms of Quantity would attribute this implicature to the fact that the speaker did not make the stronger statement that they moved the piano separately. If this explanation were sound, we could equally well conclude that the speaker implicated that Tom and Bill moved the piano separately, given that the speaker also did not make the stronger statement that they moved the piano together.
The Levinsonian derivation falsely predicts the quantity implicature and fails to predict the close-but implicature. Finally, stress plays a role in signaling or generating implicatures that Gricen theorists have not addressed cf.
Since stress does not affect the set of stronger statements, the Levinsonian derivation would predict the same limiting implicatures no matter what is stressed. Accounting for the differences in implicature described in this section is an outstanding problem for pragmatic theory.
Determinacy Grice's determinacy condition states that S conversationally implicates p only if S has to believe and implicate p if S's utterance is to be consistent with the Cooperative Principle.
Determinacy is a key premise in the working-out schema. It is hard to find contexts, though, in which the determinacy condition is satisfied. There are normally many alternative ways for a speaker to be cooperative, and contribute what is required by the purpose of the conversation, even when the meanings of the words used and the identity of any references are taken as given.
For Grice, irony involves flouting the maxim of Quality. If she meant that she loves parties, and therefore is going to Paul's party, then she would be in conformity with the maxim. So that must be what she meant.
This reasoning, however, takes Cindy's belief that she loves parties as given, and infers what she must have meant to be cooperative. It was not the Cooperative Principle that required her to believe that she loves parties.
She would have made a suitable contribution to the conversation if she had meant and believed that she does not like parties, and consequently is not going. The determinacy requirement is unsatisfied in the case of irony and other figures of speech because the speaker could have been speaking literally, believing what was said cf.
There is also the possibility of using another figure of speech. For example, Cindy would have made a suitable contribution to the conversation if she had been engaging in understatement instead of irony, meaning and believing that she hates parties.
The possibility of speaking figuratively also undermines the determinacy requirement when the speaker is actually being literal.
In 1Barb was speaking literally. But she could have been speaking ironically, meaning and believing that she did not have to work, thereby giving an affirmative answer to Alan's questions. In general, whether S observes Quality, and therefore the Cooperative Principle, depends on how what S believes relates to what S implicates.
These are independent variables. But Grice's theory claims that what S implicates is that which the Cooperative Principle requires S to believe, making implicature the dependent variable.The Turn of the Screw has 76, ratings and 5, reviews.
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“Implicature” denotes either (i) the act of meaning or implying one thing by saying something else, or (ii) the object of that act. Implicatures can be part of sentence meaning or dependent on conversational context, and can be conventional (in different senses) or unconventional.
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